The History of Idaho, The Gem of the Mountain, by James H. Hawley, Volume I, The S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1920:

The Counties of Idaho, G - L


"On March 19, 1915, Governor Alexander approved an act of the Legislature providing for the erection of Gem County out of the western portion of Boise and the northeastern portion of Canyon counties, on condition that '60 per cent of the qualified electors voting in the territory composing the proposed new County of Gem, and hereinafter described, vote in favor of this act becoming operative at an election to be called and held for that purpose in said territory,' etc. Section 2 of the act described in detail the boundaries of the proposed county by section, township and range lines, and designated the Town of Emmett as the county seat, 'until otherwise removed or changed as provided by law.'

"The county commissioners of Boise and Canyon counties were directed by the act to call a special election for the second Tuesday in May, 1915, and to publish notice of the same. It was further provided that, if the required 60 per cent or more of the voters living in the territory voted in favor of the establishment of the new county, the governor should appoint officers therefor, to hold their respective offices until the next general election.

"The election was held on the appointed date (May 11, 1915), and the proposition to organize the new county was carried by a large majority. Governor Alexander then appointed the following officers, who entered upon their duties on May 18, 1915: John McNish, James A. Kesgard and J. H. Connaughton, county commissioners; R. B. Wilson, auditor and recorder; David Nichols, sheriff; George F. Church, assessor; David Murray, treasurer; J. P. Reed, prosecuting attorney; A. C. Vadney, probate judge; E. E. Forshay, surveyor; C. D. Bucknum, coroner; Bessie Von Horten, superintendent of public instruction.

"Gem is an irregularly shaped county, its greatest length from north to south being about forty–eight miles, twenty–two miles wide on the southern boundary and about ten miles in width in the northern part. The Payette River flows in a westerly direction through the southern portion. Its principal tributary in the county is Squaw Creek, which rises near the junction of Adams, Gem and Washington counties and flows southwardly, its waters falling into the Payette near the Village of Sweet. There are also several smaller streams in the county.

"The southern part is well provided with railroad accommodations, the Idaho Northern and Payette branches of the Oregon Short Line system, forming a junction at Emmett, with stations at Bramwell, Emmett, Jenness, Letha and Montour. People living in the northern portion find transportation facilities in the Idaho Northern, which traverses Boise County a short distance east of the Gem boundary. Sweet in the Squaw Creek Valley is the only village of importance away from the railroad. What is known as the lower valley, around Emmett, has an average elevation of less than four thousand feet and is especially adapted to fruit culture. In 1918 about one hundred carloads of apples, peaches and prunes were shipped from Emmett alone— The upper valley, in the northern portion, produces large crops of grain, hay and potatoes. Part of the county lies in the Payette National Forest, the supervisor of which has his office at Emmett. In 1918 the assessed valuation of property was $4,273,867 and the estimated population at that time was 4,500."


"Gooding County was created by the act of January 28, 1913, and was named for ex–Gov. Frank R. Gooding, a resident of the county. The territory comprising Gooding was taken from the western part of Lincoln County: 'Beginning at the northeast corner of section 6, township 3, range 16 east, in the north boundary line of Lincoln County as now constituted; thence south twenty–four miles, more or less, along the section line to the southeast corner of section 31, township 6, range 16 east; thence east one mile to the northeast corner of section 4, township 7 south, range 16 east; thence south along the section line to the thread of the Snake River, being the southern boundary of Lincoln County as now constituted; thence northwesterly along the thread of the Snake River to the west line of township 6 south, range 12 east; thence north along the west line of range 12 to the northwest corner of township 3 south, range 12 east; thence east along the north line of township 3 to the place of beginning.'

"The new county was attached to the Fourth Judicial District and the Town of Gooding was named as temporary county seat. Governor Haines appointed county officers to serve until the next general election. At the election held on November 3, 1914 (the first after the county was organized); the Town of Gooding was made the permanent county seat by a vote of the electors and the following county officers were elected: C. N. Dilatush, A. Thomas and J. M. Staples, county commissioners; C. L. Miller, clerk and auditor; S. A. Sanders, sheriff; Harry O. Frazier, treasurer; E. E. Brandt, probate judge; W. P. Kennedy, assessor; P. F. Sutphen, prosecuting attorney; R. B. MacConnell, surveyor; H. E. Lamb, coroner; Myrtle Journey, superintendent of public instruction. Soon after this election part of the Lincoln Inn at Gooding was acquired by the county and remodeled for a courthouse.

"Gooding County is bounded on the north by Camas County; on the east by Lincoln; on the south by the Snake River, which separates it from Twin Falls and Owyhee counties; and on the west by Elmore County. It is one of the small counties of the state, having an area of less than eight hundred square miles, the greater part of which is irrigated. The Hagerman Valley, in the southwestern part of the county, is the center of a rich agricultural and horticultural section, and is also a stock raising district on account of the numerous springs which afford water throughout the year.

"The Oregon Short Line Railroad traverses the county from east to west through the central portion; the branch of the same system known as the 'Bliss Cut–off' runs through the southern portion; and the Idaho Southern connects Gooding with Jerome in Jerome County. The principal railway stations and shipping points are Ardmore, Bliss, Gooding and Wendell. Hagerman, near the Snake River and about five miles from the railroad, is a town of considerable size and an important trading center. In 1918 the assessed valuation of property was $7,468,832."


"This is the largest county in the State of Idaho, having an area of over eleven thousand square miles, and it is also one of the oldest, as it was created by the Legislature of Washington Territory by the act of December 20, 1861, and its boundaries were readjusted by the First Territorial Legislature of Idaho, Acting Governor Daniels approving the act on February 4, 1864. That act defined the boundaries of the county as follows: 'Beginning at a point on the Snake River known as Pittsburg Landing; thence running up the channel of said river to latitude 44° 30'; thence due east to the meridian of longitude 112°; thence north along said meridian 112° to the summit of the Rocky Mountains; thence along said range in a northerly direction until the eastern spurs of the Bitter Root Mountains are attained; thence with the Bitter Root Mountains to the southeast corner of Nez Perce County (now the southeast corner of Clearwater County); thence along the southern boundary line of Nez Perce County to the place of beginning.'

"As thus bounded Idaho County included all the present county of that name, nearly all of Lemhi, the greater portion of Valley, the northern half of Washington and a little of the northern part of Custer. It is now bounded by Nez Perce. Lewis and Clearwater counties on the north; by the State of Montana and Lemhi County on the east; by Adams and Valley counties on the south; and by the State of Oregon on the west. The Salmon River flows in a northwesterly direction through the central portion and the northern part is watered by the Clearwater River and its branches. A large part of the county lies in the United States forest reserves, but along the Salmon and Clearwater rivers and on the Camas Prairie are many acres of fine farming lands, which can be cultivated without irrigation. Stock raising is an important industry, the county standing third in the state in 1917 in the number of cattle reported, and only one county (Twin Falls) reported a greater number of horses.

"The first house in the county was built in 1861 by a French Canadian called 'Captain' Francois. It stood on the ridge known as the White Bird divide and for several months was the only house in Central Idaho. In the spring of 1862 several stations on the trail leading from Lewiston to the mining camps were established. James Donnelly had a station at Sweetwater, in Nez Perce County; Durkee Crampton's station was where the Town of Cottonwood now stands; and a man named Allen established a station at Mount Idaho. These stations were on the road known as the Mose Milner Trail, which was opened by Mr. Milner and his partner in the spring of 1862. That same year Israel Chapman, F. M. Hughes, Joshua S. Fockler and Ward Girton settled on the Camas Prairie.

"By the act of February 4, 1864, the county seat was located at Florence, then the largest town in the county. In 1869 the county seat was removed to Warren. south of the Salmon River, where the first sawmill was built by Shissler & Bloomer in 1868 and Godfrey Gamble put in a five‐stamp quartz mill about the same time. By the act of January 8, 1875, the question of relocating the county seat was submitted to the voters at a special election to be held on the first Monday in July of that year. Warren, Slate Creek and Mount Idaho were the principal contestants and the last named received the necessary majority. The first house in Mount Idaho Was built by L. P. Brown in 1862. Later he built an addition and opened the Mount Idaho Hotel. which was a popular stopping place for travelers on the way to the mining districts. A few years later Grangeville became a rival of Mount Idaho and the county seat was removed there by a vote of the people in 1902.

"On July 16, 1887, the Idaho County Pioneer Association was organized with L. P. Brown, president; Matthew H. Truscott. secretary; and Jay M. Dorman, treasurer. Among the members were John M. Crooks, Keith N. White, James Edwards and George Schmadeka, all of whom were entitled to be called pioneers. Jay M. Dorman was a carpenter and built the jail and courthouse at Mount Idaho after that town was made the county seat. Matthew H. Truscott came to the county in 1865 and was postmaster at Mount Idaho at the time he was elected secretary of the association. James Edwards was one of the early packers on. the trail from Lewiston to Elk City. took part in the Sheepeater war in 1879. and was later in the hotel business at Grangeville. Keith W. White came to Elk City in 1862, removed to the Camas Prairie in 1873, and in 1886 was elected sheriff of the county. John M. Crooks and George Schmadeka settled where the Town of Grangeville now stands and the latter's son, William F. Schmadeka, was one of the first board of town trustees when Grangeville was incorporated.

"Two lines of railroad penetrate the northwestern part of the county. Grangeville is the terminus of the Camas Prairie Railroad and Stites is the terminus of a branch of the Northern Pacific. The principal railroad stations are Cottonwood. Ferdinand, Grangeville, Stites and Winona. In the interior the villages of Caribel, Clearwater, Dixie, Elk City, Keuterville. Newsome. Riggins. Warren. White Bird and Woodland are postal and trading centers for a large part of the rural population. In 1910 the population of the county was 12,384, and in 1918 the assessed valuation of property was $12,668,726."


"On February 18, 1913, Governor Haines approved an act erecting the County of Jefferson from the southwest part of the County of Fremont, provided a majority of the voters living in the territory comprising the proposed county expressed themselves in favor thereof, the question to be submitted to them at a special election, the people living within the boundaries of the new county to pay the expense of such election. It was also provided in the act that if a majority of the votes cast were in the affirmative the governor should appoint officers, who should assume their duties on the first Monday in January, 1914. The election was held on November 5, 1913, and the vote was 1,827 in favor of the new county to 603 in the negative. At the same time the people voted on the question of a permanent county seat. The contest was between the towns of Rigby and Menan and the former won by a vote of 1,368 to 961, although Menan is nearer to the geographical center of the county.

"Jefferson County is situated in the eastern part of the state, in the Snake River Valley. It is bounded on the north by Fremont County; on the east by Fremont and Madison; on the south by Bonneville and Bingham; and on the west by Butte and Fremont. Part of Jefferson was taken to form Butte County in 1917. The average elevation of the county is 4,700 feet and no other county in the state is so nearly uniformly level. Big Lost River waters the western part of the county and in the central portion is Mud Lake, which receives the waters of Beaver and Camas creeks from Fremont County. A large part of the land is under irrigation, the principal crops being alfalfa, grain, potatoes and sugar beets.

"The Salt Lake City & Butte division of the Oregon Short Line railroad system runs north and south through the central portion and the Yellowstone Park branch crosses the southeast corner. There are also two 'Beet Loops' of railroad, one on the east and the other on the west of the Yellowstone Park line, that traverse the southeastern portion of the county. Along the different railway lines the principal stations and shipping points are Camas, Grant, Lewisville, Lorenzo, Menan, Rigby and Roberts, and there are a few minor villages. Owsley, on the south shore of Mud Lake, is the only village in the central part.

"In 1918 the assessed valuation of property was $7,048,146. There are no national forests within the county and stock raising is limited, though dairying is a profitable industry."


"Jerome County was created by the Fifteenth State Legislature, taking parts of Lincoln, Gooding and Minidoka counties, the creating act being approved February 8, 1919. The Town of Jerome, which gave its name to the county was designated as the county seat. The governor, soon after approving the act, appointed the following officers:
Auditor and Recorder—Oliver Hill.
Treasurer—I. D. Ward.
Assessor—W. N. Hardwich.
Probate Judge—L. L. Badgly.
School Superintendent—Mrs. June Kearney.
Prosecuting Attorney—A. B. Barclay.
Sheriff—Ed White.
County Commissioners—Anders Anderson, C. O. Roice, A. W. Atwood.
Surveyor—Lynn Crandall.
Coroner—Dr. J. F. Schmershall.

"The area of the county is nearly six hundred square miles. Its estimated population is 8,000, and its assessed valuation is estimated at $5.000,000.

"There are 160,000 acres of arable land in the county under irrigation, the entire irrigated land being water from the Twin Falls North Side Canal, and the water used being stored water from the Jackson Hole reservoir at the headwaters of the Snake River in Wyoming. There is no dry farming in the county. The principal industries are general farming and stock raising. Alfalfa, fruit, sugar beets. potatoes and wheat are the principal crops raised. Postoflices are: Jerome, Eden and Hazelton.


"Kootenai County, so named after the tribe of Indians that once inhabited a considerable portion of Northern Idaho, was created by the Second Territorial Legislature, Governor Lyon approving the act on December 22, 1864. That act defined the boundaries as follows: 'Beginning at a point on the forty–eighth degree of north latitude, on the dividing line between Washington and Idaho territories; thence north with said dividing line of longitude to the forty–ninth parallel of north latitude; thence east with the said degree of latitude to the northwest corner of (the boundary line) Montana Territory; thence southerly with the boundary line of said territory to the forty–eighth degree of north latitude, and thence west along the said degree of latitude to the place of beginning.'

"The boundaries as thus described contained the present counties of Bonner and Boundary, but no part of the present County of Kootenai, all of which lies south of the forty–eighth parallel of north latitude. By the act of December 22, 1864, the county seat was located at a place called Seneaquoteen (or Sinnaquateen), situated on Clark's Fork, about where the Village of Laclede, Bonner County, now stands. The act also provided that whenever fifty or more inhabitants applied to the governor for a county organization, he should appoint three commissioners, who should, among other prescribed duties, appoint the rest of the county officers. Subsequent legislation changed the boundaries so as to include the present County of Kootenai and the act of January 9, 1867, authorized the county commissioners (when appointed) to locate the county seat.

"For more than fifteen years the county could not muster the necessary fifty persons qualified to sign a petition for county organization, but in 1880 the Northern Pacific Railroad Company began building the road into Kootenai and new settlements were formed along the line of the railroad. In July, 1881, a meeting was held at George B. Wonnacott's store, about two miles west of Fort Sherman, at which the preliminary steps were taken for the organization of the county. A petition was presented to the governor, who appointed O. F. Canfield. William Martin and J. T. Rankin as a board of county commissioners. In October, 1881, the organization was completed by the appointment of the following officers: Fred Haines. sheriff; George B. Wonnacott, recorder; M. D. Wright, assessor and collector; Max Neil, treasurer; A. L. Bradbury, probate judge, these officials to serve until the next general election. The county seat was located at Rathdrum until after Bonner County was cut off from Kootenai in 1907, when it was removed to Coeur d'Alene.

"No county in Idaho is better provided with railroads than Kootenai. The Northern Pacific, the Spokane International, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, the Oregon—Washington Railroad & Navigation Company, the Spokane & Inland Empire and the Idaho & Washington Northern traverse the county in all directions and afford excellent transportation facilities. The principal railroad towns are Athol, Bayview, Cataldo, Coeur D'Alene, Garwood, Gibbs, Hauser, Post Falls, Ramsey, Rathdrum and Spirit Lake, and there are a number of minor stations and a few interior villages. The population of the county in 1910 was 22,747, and in 1918 the assessed valuation of property was $18,396,436. the county standing seventh of the forty—one counties in this respect.

"The notable industries are lumbering, farming, mining, fruit growing, dairying and poultry raising. Several thousand acres of the Rathdrum Prairie are supplied with water for irrigation and here the finest fruits and vegetables are grown. The forests of white and yellow pine, fir and tamarack are practically inexhaustible, the estimated quantity of merchantable lumber in 191 5 being 23,000,000,000 feet.


"When Latah County was first created by the act of December 22, 1864, it was bounded as follows: 'Beginning at a point in the channel of the Snake River at its junction with the Clearwater River; thence running due north along the dividing line between Washington and Idaho territories to the forty–eighth degree of north latitude; thence east with said degree of latitude until it intersects the boundary line of Shoshone County; thence south with the boundary line of said county to the middle channel of the Clearwater River; thence with the channel of said river to its junction with the Snake River, the place of beginning.'

"In the creative act the name of the county was spelled 'Lahtoh' and it was provided that when fifty or more inhabitants desired to perfect a county organization they should apply by petition to the governor, who was authorized to appoint three 'discreet and well qualified citizens'of the county as a board of county commissioners, with power to fill ofiices by appointment until an election could be held. Kootenai County was created by the same act and the two unorganized counties were attached to Nez Perce for all civil and judicial purposes until they should be organized according to law.

"The people of Latah County made three separate efforts to perfect a county organization, but each time the opposition of Lewiston, county seat of Nez Perce County, was strong enough to prevent such action. In 1887 they appealed to Fred T. Dubois, then Idaho's delegate in Congress, for relief. Mr. Dubois introduced a bill in Congress providing for the organization of the county, and by securing the cooperation of Senator Mitchell, of Oregon, succeeded in having it passed. It was approved by President Cleveland on May 14, I888. Latah County therefore enjoys the distinction of being the only county in the United States organized by an act of Congress. The act defined the boundaries as they are at present and named W. W. Lancdon, William Frazier and J. L. Naylor as the first board of county commissioners. On May 29, 1888, this board appointed the following county ofiicers. to serve until the next general election: W. B. Kyle, auditor and recorder; Louis Jain, probate judge; W. W. Baker, treasurer; Robert Bruce, sheriff; L. C. Roberts, assessor; C. B. Reynolds, district attorney; S. L. Campbell, surveyor; J. W. Lieuallen, superintendent of schools; William Gray, coroner.

"One of the first settlers was William Ewing, who located in the Palouse Valley in 1869 and engaged in the cattle business. About two years later Asbury Lieuallen located a homestead in the Paradise Valley three miles east of where Moscow now stands. Other early settlers were W. J. Hamilton, Bennett Summerfield. Albert and James Howard, S. J. Langdon, John Russell and a few others. On June 1, 1891, the Latah County Pioneers' Association was formed in the Grand Army Hall at Moscow with G. W. Tomer, president; Bennett Summerfield and Silas Imbler, vice presidents; J. L. Naylor, secretary; John Johnston, treasurer. The first reunion was held on June 15, 1892, on the picnic grounds at the foot of Moscow Mountain, with A. J. Green as orator of the day.

"Five lines of railroad traverse Latah County, viz.: The Northern Pacific, the Chicago, Milwaukee 81 St. Paul, the Oregon–Washington Railroad & Navigation Company, the Spokane & Inland Empire, and a short road called the Washington, Idaho & Montana. Altogether there are 107 miles of railway in the county. The leading railroad towns are Bovill, Collins, Deary, Genesee, Harvard, Helmer, Kendrick, Juliaetta, Moscow, Princeton, Potlatch and Troy. There are a number of small villages of from the lines of railway, the largest being Cora, Park and Viola.

"Latah County has an area of 1,128 square miles. It is bounded on the north by Kootenai County; on the east by Shoshone and Clearwater; on the south by Clearwater and Nez Perce counties; and on the west by the State of Washington. It is divided by a mountain range called the Thatuna Hills, south of which is the famous Palouse country, where fruits of all kinds are raised in abundance. This section is also one of the great wheat fields of Idaho, the yield sometimes running as high as sixty bushels to the acre. In 1910 the population was 18,818, and the assessed valuation of property in 1918 was $19,864,539, only four counties in the state returning a larger valuation.


"Situated in the eastern part of the state, taking in the Lemhi Valley and extending northwest into the Valley of the Salmon River, is Lemhi County, which was created by an act of the Fifth Territorial Legislature, approved by Governor Ballard on January 9, 1869. The county takes its name from the Mormon settlement that was made in the Lemhi Valley in 1854, an account of which is given in an earlier chapter of this history. It has an area of 4,867 square miles; is bounded by the State of Montana on the north and east; by Fremont County on the southeast; by Custer County on the south and by Idaho County on the west. Along the eastern boundary are the Bitter Root Mountains, the Lemhi Range lies along the line separating Lemhi from Custer County, and in the western part are the Salmon River and Yellow Jacket Mountains. The valleys between these ranges are fertile and produce abundant crops. Two national forests—the Lemhi and Salmon—afford excellent grazing facilities and in 1917 the county stood first in the number of cattle and fifth in the number of sheep.

Leacock's Station

"In the summer of 1866 a party of prospectors from Montana discovered rich placer mines in the Big Creek Basin, between the Salmon River and Yellow Jacket Mountains, about eighteen miles from where Salmon, the county seat, is now situated. At that time the territory comprising Lemhi County was a part of Idaho County, but the rush to the new mining fields soon brought a large population, with the result that a provisional county government was established in July, 1867, and the county was regularly organized in January, 1869. The act creating Lemhi County named George L. Shoup, E. H. Tuttle and Benjamin F. Heath as commissioners to organize the county and appoint the other county officers. They appointed R. H. Johns, auditor and recorder; John S. Ramey, sheriff; J. G. Finnell, probate judge; Charles G. Chamberlain, county clerk; Francis J. Lemman, assessor. These officers served until the first election, which was held on June 7, 1869, when George L. Shoup, E. H. Tuttle and Fred Phillips were elected commissioners; Charles G. Chamberlain, clerk; Jesse McCaleb, auditor and recorder; John S. Ramey, sheriff; E. C. Whitsett, treasurer; A. C. Harris, probate judge; J. P. Jewell, coroner. George L. Shoup was the last territorial and the first state governor of Idaho, and was one of the first United States senators after the state was admitted into the Union. The present courthouse at Salmon was completed in 1910, at a cost of $40,000. In the spring of that year the Gilmore & Pittsburgh Railroad was finished through the Lemhi Valley, with stations at Baker, Cruik, Gilmore, Leadore, Lemhi, Maier, Salmon and Tendoy. Away from the railroad the villages are Carmen, Forney, Leesburg, May, Nicholia, Shoup and a few smaller places.

"Among the early settlers were the above named county officers, Thomas Pope, James McNab, J. L. Kirtley, B. F. Price, N. I. Andrews, F. B. Sharkey, Thomas Ryeatt, William Peterson, John W. Ostrander, Elijah Mulkey, David A. Wood, Albert Green, Joseph Crain, Thomas Elder, James Glendenning, and A. M. Stephenson. Most of these men were attracted to the country by the reports of the rich mineral discoveries. Mining is still one of the leading occupations, about fifty thousand tons of ore being shipped from the Gilmore mines every year. Some coal is mined near Salmon. In 1910 the population of Lemhi County was 4,786, and in 1918 assessed valuation of property was $5,481,170.


"This is one of the new counties of the state and its early history is included in that of Nez Perce County, from which it was taken by the act of March 3, 1911. It is bounded on the north by Nez Perce and Clearwater counties; on the east by Clearwater and Idaho counties; on the south by Idaho; and on the west by Nez Perce County. The Clearwater River flows along the eastern boundary and the Salmon River touches the southwest corner. Although one of the smallest counties in the state, Lewis is one of the best agricultural counties of Idaho. The eastern half lies in the Nez Perce Prairie, where the soil is largely of lava production and highly productive. Alfalfa, barley, wheat, oats and potatoes all yield large crops and there are some good orchards in the county. The western half is devoted chiefly to grazing and lumbering.

"The act creating the county located the county seat temporarily at Nez Perce, the permanent location to be decided by the voters at the general election of 1912. The first county officers were appointed by the governor and served until the election in November, 1912, when the following were chosen: Isaac P. Ragan, N. B. Schlader and I. H. Lowrey, commissioners; Clvde E. Clovis, clerk: E. H. Ratliff, assessor; Manford H. Paige, sheriff; Luther T. McKee, treasurer; Thomas M. Roberts, probate judge; A. J. Warren, surveyor; Homer C. Parrish, coroner; Eva B. Henderson, superintendent of public schools. Up to August. 1918, no courthouse had been erected, the county officers occupying rented quarters in the Union State Bank Building at Nez Perce.

"In 1908 the Camas Prairie Railroad was completed through the county. The Craig Mountain Railroad connects with the Camas Prairie line at Craig Junction, and the Lewiston, Nez Perce & Eastern (also called the Nez Perce & Idaho) connects the county seat with the Camas Prairie Railroad at Vollmer. This road was built by local capitalists in 1910. The principal railroad stations are Ilo, Nez Perce, Reubens, Vollmer and Winchester. Forest, in the western part, Mohler, about six miles northwest of Nez Perce, and Russell, in the northern part, are trading villages for agricultural communities.

"Lewis County was named in honor of Capt. Meriwether Lewis, one of the first white men to visit this section of the country, who with Capt. William Clark and a small company explored the country from the Missouri River to the Pacific Coast in 1805. In 1910 the population was included in the census returns of Nez Perce County. The assessed valuation of property in 1918 was $7,815,835."


"Lincoln County was first created by the First State Legislature, the act becoming a law without the governor's signature on March 3, 1891, the five days given the governor by Section 10, Article IV, of the state constitution having expired. The boundaries as fixed by that act were as follows: 'Commencing at the northeast corner of township 3 south, of range 11 east of Boise meridian; thence south, following the line between ranges II and 12 east to a point where said line intersects the middle channel of the Snake River; thence easterly, following the middle of the channel of the Snake River to a point where the township line between ranges 25 and 26 east intersects said channel, thence north along said township line to a point where said line intersects the line between townships 2 and 3 south; thence west along said line to the place of beginning.'

"These boundaries included the present counties of Lincoln, Jerome, Gooding and Minidoka. Alta County was created by the same act, but in the latter part of June, 1891, the Supreme Court held the act to be unconstitutional and the counties were not organized. In 1895 the Legislature created Blaine County out of the eastern part of Alturas and Lincoln was recreated with the boundaries the same as those described in the act of 1891, with the county seat at Shoshone. Gooding and Minidoka were cut off from Lincoln in 1913, reducing it to its present dimensions. It is bounded on the north by Camas and Blaine counties; on the east by Minidoka; on the south by Minidoka and Twin Falls, being separated from the latter by the Snake River; and on the west by Gooding County.

"The altitude varies from less than 3,000 feet, along the Snake River to over 5,000 feet in the northern portion. Much of the land is irrigated and fine crops are raised. Some dry farming is practiced in the eastern part and there are some fine orchards in the county, apples and prunes especially doing well.

"Lincoln County is well supplied with railroads, the main line of the Oregon Short Line passing from east to west through the central part, the Wood River and Hill City branches of the same system serve the northern portion. In 1910 the population was 12,676, which included the population of Gooding and Minidoka counties. The assessed valuation in 1918 was $8,187,562. "

Source: The History of Idaho, The Gem of the Mountain, by James H. Hawley, Volume I, The S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1920:
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