A Capsule History, An Idaho Chronology

Abstracted from "The Idaho Almanac," 1977 Edition, State of Idaho."

1805 Lewis and Clark discover Idaho at Lemhi Pass and cross north Idaho over the Lolo Trail.
1806 Lewis and Clark spent more than six weeks with the Nez Perce Indians around Kamiah before returning eastward across the Lolo Trail.
1809 David Thompson built Idaho's earliest fur trading post — Kullyspell House — on Lake Pend Oreille for the North West Company.
1810 Andrew Henry built a winter fur trading post near later Saint Anthony. This was the earliest American fort in the Pacific Northwest.
1811 A Pacific Fur Company expedition — the Astorians — explored the Valley of the Snake on their way west to the Columbia.
1818 Donald Mackenzie explored southern Idaho with his Snake expedition of trappers who continued to hunt beaver in the Snake country for 24 years.
1832 The great Rocky mountain fur trade rendezvous was held at Pierre's Hole (now known as Teton valley) in July.
1834 Fort Hall and Fort Boise were established as Snake river fur trading centers, but they became important as outposts on the Oregon trail.
1836 Henry Harmon Spalding founded his Nez Perce Indian mission at Lapwai.
1842 The Jesuit Coeur d'Alene Mission of the Sacred Heart was started near Saint Manes. Moved to a site near what now is Cataldo in 1846 (where the old mission church still stands), it now continues at Desmet, where the mission was transferred in 1877.
1846 Idaho, which later became a territory, became part of the United States by a treaty dividing the old Oregon Country with Great Britian.
1854 The Ward Massacre in Boise Valley on the Oregon Trail led to the closing of Fort Boise the next summer and Fort Hall in 1856.
1855 Mormons from Utah established an Indian mission at Fort Lemhi southeast of Salmon, but they had to abandon the site in 1858.
1860 Idaho's oldest town, Franklin, was founded just north of the Utah border, April 14. Gold discoveries at Orofino Creek, September 30, led to the founding of Pierce early in December and to the gold rush in 1861 and 1862.
1862 Idaho's earliest newspaper, the Golden Age, was started at Lewiston, August 2. Boise Basin gold discoveries, August 2, led to the founding of Idaho City and other important mining camps in the basin, October 7.
1863 Idaho territory was established by an act of Congress signed by President Lincoln on March 4. Idaho was organized at Lewiston by Governor William H. Wallace, July 10.
1864 Boise became permanent capital of Idaho, December 24.
1874 Rail service reached Idaho with completion of the Utah Northern to Franklin, May 30. The line was extended north to Montana by 1880. On October 11, Idaho's first daily newspaper — the Owyhee Daily Avalanche — was issued at Silver City.
1877 The Nez Perce War broke out in north Idaho in June, with fighting continuing into October in Montana during Chief Joseph's famous retreat.
1878 The Bannock War was started in southern Idaho and moved on into Oregon and back in a summer long campaign.
1880 With discovery of lead-silver lodes around Ketchum, Bellevue, and Hailey, the rush to Wood River transformed south-central Idaho.
1884 The Coeur d'Alene stampede, followed by important lead-silver discoveries later in the year, got Idaho's major mining district going in a big way.
1886 Construction of the Idaho territorial capitol was completed.
1887 Hailey's electric light plant went into operation, May 19.
1889 In its last session, the territorial legislature located the University of Idaho at Moscow, where it opened in 1892.
1890 Idaho was admitted to the union as a state, July 3.
1892 Martial law commenced in the Coeur d'Alene mines July 14, after the dynamiting of an abandoned mill at Gem.
1899 The Coeur d'Alene mine labor war erupted again with the dynamiting of the Bunker Hill & Sullivan concentrator at Wardner, April 29.
1901 The Academy of Idaho (now Idaho State University) was established in Pocatello.
1903 Idaho's hunting and fishing licensing system began.
1904 With the beginning of irrigation in the Twin Falls country, the city of Twin Falls was started.
1905 Former Governor Frank Steunenberg was assassinated, December 30.
1907 William E. Borah was elected to the United States Senate, where he gained an international reputation during thirty-three years of service. William D. Haywood, charged with conspiracy and the assassination of Frank Steunenberg, was found not guilty at the end of an internationally celebrated trial.
1909 Idaho adopted the direct primary.
1910 Idaho's worst forest fire burned over a large tract in the northern part of the state.
1912 Constitutional amendments were adopted authorizing the initiative, referendum, and recall, and the establishing of a state board of education to supervise all levels of education.
1916 Prohibition went into effect statewide in Idaho.
A state highway program began as part of the national good roads movement.
1918 The success of the Non-partisan League taking over the Idaho Democratic primary, September 3, resulted in abandonment of Idaho's primary nomination system for 12 years beginning in 1919.
1920 Whitebird hill grade, connecting north and south Idaho was opened. The State Capitol was completed.
1924 Craters of the Moon National Monument was established.
1926 Commercially contracted airmail service began in Idaho.
1928 Commercial radio broadcasting began in Idaho.
1931 The direct primary was restored for state offices, and a state income tax was imposed. A large primitive area was established in the mountains of central Idaho.
1935 Statewide prohibition was repealed. A sales tax was established, but failed in a referendum in 1936.
1936 Sun Valley was established as a ski resort by the Union Pacific.
1938 Paving of the north and south highway finally was completed. A state fish and game commission was established by initiative of the voters.
1946 Election of Idaho's governor and other state officers for four year terms began.
1947 Idaho State College at Pocatello became a four year institution.
1949 The National Reactor Testing Station near Arco was established.
1953 Television broadcasting began in Idaho.
1956 Construction in Idaho of the national interstate highway system was commenced.
1965 A state sales tax was adopted. Nez Perce National Historic Park was established in north Idaho. Boise Junior College, established in 1932, became Boise State College with a four-year curriculum.
1969 Annual legislative sessions commenced.
1970 A complete revision of the Idaho constitution was rejected by the voters.
1971 A lower voting age of 18 years, rather than 21, went into effect.
1972 Sawtooth National Recreation Area was established. A constitutional amendment was adopted requiring state government reorganization into no more than 20 agencies.
1974 Boise State College was given full university status.
1975 The legislature authorized and funded state-supported kindergartens.
1976 The newly completed Teton Dam on the Teton River in eastern Idaho ruptured and the flood caused 14 deaths, directly and indirectly, and resulted in upwards of $500 million in property damage.

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